Evaluation of Water Quality Parameters and Zooplankton Community during Pre- and Post-Covid Phases at Chandravalli Lake, Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India


  • Basavaraj S K Karnatak University
  • Girish Kadadevaru Karnatak University




Chandravalli Lake, Correlation, CCA, PCA, Zooplankton


The present work deals with variations in physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton community during pre- and post-covid phases at Chandravalli Lake, a pre-historic water body located in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India. Eighteen water quality parameters were analysed and zooplankton community diversity were studied during the two phases. A total of forty three zooplanktons were recorded during the study. Cladocera was the dominating group during both pre- and post-covid periods. Tropocyclops prasinus belonging to Copepoda was the most abundant species in this water body. Ostracods were recorded only when the water was turbid and the TDS was also high at pre-covid phase. After the lockdown period the water was clear and the Ostracods almost vanished. The Principal Component Analysis, CCA and correlation studies indicate the variations of biotic and abiotic factors during pre- and post-covid phases. The presence of eutrophic indicators in the water body suggests for regular monitoring to conserve the water body from further degradation


Abdulwahab, S. and Rabee, A.M. 2015.Ecological factors affecting the distribution of the zooplankton community in the Tigris River at Baghdad region, Iraq. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 41(2), 187-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2015.03.003.

Ahmed, U., Parveen, S., Khan, A.A., Kabir, H.A., Mola, H.R.A. and Ganai, A.H. 2011. Zooplankton population in relation to physic-chemical factors of a sewage fed pond of Aligarh (UP), India. Biology and Medicine, 3, 336-341. https://www.walshmedicalmedia.com/open-access/zooplankton-population-in-relation-to-physicochemical-factors-of-a-sewage-fed-pond-of-aligarh-up-india-0974-8369-3-123.pdf

Anonymous. 1980. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water.15th edition, APHA AWWA WPCF, Washington. D.C.

Banakar, A.B., Kiran, B.R., Puttaiah, E.T., Purushotham, R. and Manjappa, S. 2005. Hydrochemical characteristics of surface water in Chandravalli Pond, Near Chitradurga. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 25(3), 249-253.

Barbieri, A., Veronesi, M., Simona, M., Malusardi, S. and Straskrabova, V. 1999. Limnological survey in eight high mountain Lakes located in Lago Maggiore watershed (Switzerland). Journal of Limnology, 58(2), 179-192. https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.1999.179

Bhat, N.A., Wanganeo, A. and Wanganeo, R. 2012. Composition and dynamics of Rotifera fauna from Upper Basin (Bhoj wetland) as parameter of water quality. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 3(3), 373-381.

Birasal, N.R., Nadkarni, V.B. and Gouder, B.Y.M. 1987. The first five months of the Supa reservoir, river Kali, India. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 1(3), 275-281. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrr.3450010308

Bose, R., Bose, A.K. and Das, A.K. 2019. Fish diversity and limnological parameters Influencing fish assemblage pattern in Chambal River Basin of Madhya Pradesh, India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India,Section. B. Biological Sciences,89, 461-473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-017-0958-5.

Chavan, A.W., Dhamani, A.A. and Murkute, V.B. 2006. Seasonal variation in the physicochemical parameter of river Wainanga near Bramhapuri, Dist: Chandrapur. Vidhyabharati: International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 1, 28-35.

Dorak, Z. 2013. Zooplankton abundance in the lower Sakarya River Basin (Turkey): Impact of environmental variables. Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 19(1), 1-22. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/103620

Edmondson, C. H. 1959. Hawaiian Grapsidae. Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 22, 153-202.

Etim, E.E., Odoh, R., Itodo, A.U., Umoh, S.D. and Lawal, U. 2013. Water quality index for the assessment of water quality from different sources in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Frontiers in Science, 3(3), 89-95.

Ferrara, O., Vagaggini, D. and Margaritora, F.G. 2002.Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Lake Bracciano, Latium, Italy.Journal of Limnology, 61(2): 169-175. https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2002.169.

Ghosh, A. (Ed). 1990. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. India: Brill. ISBN: 90-04-09262-5.

Haddout, S., Priya, K.L., Hoguane, A.M., Cecilia, J. Casila, C. and Ljubenkov, I. 2022. Relationship of salinity, temperature, pH, and transparency to dissolved oxygen in the Bouregreg estuary (Morocco): First results. Water Practice & Technology, 17(12), 2654-2663. https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2022.144

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A. and Ryan, P.D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1), 9. https://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/past.pdf

Hegde, G. and Kale, Y.S. 1995. Quality of lentic waters of Dharwad District in North Karnataka. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 37(1), 52-56.

Hosetti, B.B. and Venkateshwarlu, M. 2001.Trends in Wildlife Biodiversity Conservation and Management (Vol. 1). Daya Books, New Delhi.

Hujare, M.S. 2005. Hydrobiology studies on some water reservoirs of Talsande and Attigre Maharashtra. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Shivaji University, Kolhapur India.

Hulyal, S.B. and Kaliwal, B.B. 2008. Dynamics of phytoplankton in relation to physico-chemical factors of Almatti reservoir of Bijapur District, Karnataka State. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 153(1-4), 45–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0335-1.

Ismail, A.H. and Adnan, A.A. 2016. Zooplankton composition and abundance as indicators of eutrophication in two small man-made lakes.Tropical Life Sciences Research, 27(supp1), 31–38. https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2016.27.3.5.

Korostynska, O., Mason, A. and Al-Shamma’a, A. 2012. Monitoring of nitrates and phosphates in wastewater: Current technologies and further challenges. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent systems, 5(1), 149-176. https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-475

Kotti, M.E., Vlessidis, A.G., Thanasoulias, N.C. and Evmiridis, N.P. 2005. Assessment of river water quality in Northwestern Greece. Water Resources Management, 19, 77-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-005-0294-z.

Kudari, V.A., Kadadevaru, G.G. and Kanamadi, R.D. 2005. Zooplankton composition in some ponds of Haveri district, Karnataka. Zoos’ Print Journal, 20(12), 2094-2099.

Kudari, V.A., Kadadevaru, G.G. and Kanamadi, R.D. 2006. Characterisation of selected lentic habitats of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttar Kannada districts of Karnataka State, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 120, 387-405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-9069-5.

Kudari, V.A., Kanamadi, R.D. and Kadadevaru, G.G. 2006. Limnological studies of Attiveri and Bachanki Reservoirs of Uttar Kannada District, Karnataka, India. Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 12(1), 87.

Manickam, N., Bhavan, P.S., Santhanam, P., Bhuvaneswari, R., Muralisankar, T., Srinivasan, V. and Karthik, M. 2018. Impact of seasonal changes in zooplankton biodiversity in Ukkadam Lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, and potential future implications of climate change. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, 79, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41936-018-0029-3.

Marandi, A., Polikarpus, M. and Jõeleht, A. 2013.A new approach for describing the relationship between electrical conductivity and major anion concentration in natural waters. Applied Geochemistry, 38, 103-109. https://10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012019.

Patil, C.S. and Gouder, B.Y.M. 1989. Freshwater Invertebrates of Dharwad, Karnataka State, India. Prasaranga, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India. 144 pages.

Pattan, K.I. and Sunkad, B.N. 2017. Water quality assessment of Kangrali water body of Belagavi. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(3).

Pereira, R., Soares, A.M., Ribeiro, R. and Gonçalves, F. 2002. Assessing the trophic state of Linhoslake: A first step towards ecological rehabilitation.Journal of Environmental Management, 64(3), 285–297. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0521

Raina, R., Kumar, P., Sonaullah, F. and Wanganeo, A. 2013. Limnological study on a Samrat Ashok Sagar with special reference to zooplankton population. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 5(6), 317-332. https://10.5897/IJBC2013.0568.

Ridhhi, S., Sharma, V., Sharma, M.S., Verma, B.K., Rachana, M. and Gaur, K.S. 2011. Studies on limnological characteristics, planktonic diversity and fishes (species) in Lake Pichhola, Udaipur, Rajasthan (India). Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 1(3), 274-285.

Pennak, R.W. 1946. The dynamics of Fresh-water Plankton Populations. Ecological Monographs, 16(4), 339-355. https://doi.org/10.2307/1961640.

Rusydi, A.F. 2018. Correlation between conductivity and total dissolved solid in various type of water: A review. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 118, 012019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012019.

Shivashankar, P and Venkataramana, G.V. 2013. Zoplankton diversity and their seasonal variations of Bhadra reservoir, Karnataka, India. International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(5), 87-91.

Singh, S., Kumari, V., Usmani, E., Dutta, R., Kumari, R., Kumari, J. and Arif, M. 2021. Study on zooplankton diversity in a fresh water pond (Raja Bandh) of Jamtara, Jharkhand, India. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research, 4(2), 5-13. https://doi.org/10.31632/ijalsr.2021.v04i02.002.

Surana, R., Subba, B. and Limbu, K. 2010. Physico-chemical studies on Chimdi Lake of Sunsari District during its restoration stage. Our Nature, 8(1), 258-269. https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v8i1.4337.

Swar, D.B. 1981. Seasonal abundance of limnetic crustacean zooplankton in Lake Phewa, Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 21(1), 535-538. https://doi.org/10.1080/03680770.1980. 11897037

Uttangi, J.C. 2001. Conservation and management strategy for the water fowls of minor irrigation tank habitats and their importance as stopover site in the Dharwad district. pp. 179-221. In: Hosetti, B.B. and Venkateshwaralu, M. (Eds.) Trends in Wildlife and Management.Daya Publication House, New Delhi, India.

Vaidya, A.S. and Mannikeri, M.S. 2000. Ostracode as ecological indices from the west coast of India. IGCP – 367.

Vijaykumar, K., Paul, R and Kadadevaru, G. 1991. Physicochemical features of Attikolla pond during pre-monsoon period. Journal of Environmental Ecology, 9(2), 393-395.

Vijaykumar, K., Paul, R. and Kadadevaru, G. 1992. Diel cycle of physico-chemical features of freshwater tank. Journal of Environmental Ecology, 10(2), 421-423.

Sladecek, V. 1983. Rotifers as indicators of water quality. Hydrobiologia, 100, 169-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00027429

Yang, X.E., Wu, X., Hao, H.L. and He, Z.L. 2008.Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication. Journal of Zhejiang University, Science B, 9(3), 197-209. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0710626.




How to Cite

S K, B., & Kadadevaru, G. (2023). Evaluation of Water Quality Parameters and Zooplankton Community during Pre- and Post-Covid Phases at Chandravalli Lake, Chitradurga District, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 50(1), 83–96. https://doi.org/10.55863/ijees.2024.3071