Performance of Horizontal Surface Free Flow Integrated Constructed Wetland Developed for Treatment of Sewage Water at Neela Hauz Biodiversity Park, Delhi, India


  • Nidhi Seth Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India
  • Sharad Vats Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India
  • Suman Lakhanpaul Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
  • Yasir Arafat Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
  • C. R. Babu Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, University of Delhi, Delhi, India



Sewage, Integrated constructed wetlland, Water quality, Removal efficiency, in situ remediation


Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widely used in the treatment of sewage. Since land is the limiting, treatment of sewage by CWs, in situ bioremediation using CW is the best option. The problem with in situ remediation is the low hydrological retention time and low levels of Dissolved Oxygen (DO). To overcome these constraints, an integrated Constructed Wetland System (CWS) was developed and functionalized at Neela Hauz Biodiversity Park, Delhi, India. The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a newly - developed integrated CWS for the removal of pollutants from sewage. The integrated CWS has two stabilizing ponds, three filtration chambers with rough filters, and CW with macrophytes. The performance efficiency of the system was assessed in terms of removal efficiency of pH, TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, NH3-N, PO4-P, some heavy metals and the enhancement of DO. The removal efficiency for TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, NH3-N, and PO4-P varied from 0.64 to 89.02%. The DO concentration enhanced from 0.0 to 3.5 mg/l in CW and 7.5 mg/l in lake. The reduction in heavy metals varied from 16.63 to 100%. The integrated CW design performed more efficiently in the removal of pollutants within 14 hours of HRT than most of the CWs used by many workers and hence can be used for in situ remediation of sewage.


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How to Cite

Seth, N., Vats, S., Lakhanpaul , S., Arafat, Y., & Babu, C. R. (2024). Performance of Horizontal Surface Free Flow Integrated Constructed Wetland Developed for Treatment of Sewage Water at Neela Hauz Biodiversity Park, Delhi, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 50(4), 631–643.