Community Structure and Diversity of Mangroves at Kannur District of Kerala, Southwest Coast of India


  • Kavya B Nambiar Department of Botany, St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Mangaluru, 575003, Karnataka, India
  • Jyothi Miranda Department of Botany, St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Mangaluru, 575003, Karnataka, India



Importance Value Index,, frequency,, floristic study,, diversity,, ecosystem,, conservation


Mangrove forests are among the world’s most productive ecosystems situated at the interface between land and sea/backwaters in tropical and subtropical latitudes.  Mangrove vegetation in three geographical regions of Kannur on the southwest coast of India was assessed for its community structure and diversity indices. Thirteen true mangrove species belonging to 9 genera and 7 families formed the mangrove vegetation of the region. Highest density was recorded for Acanthus ilicifolius (7953 stems/ha), followed by Rhizophora mucronata (3750 stems/ha). A. ilicifolius is the most common species with maximum important value index (IVI) of 49.19. Shannon-Weiner Index of diversity ranged from 2.249 to 2.527.   Kunhimangalam region have more species richness with a Simpson dominance index of 0.920 and Shannon - Weiner index of 2.527.  The sites selected were distinct from each other as the species diversity varied due to the climatic, biotic, anthropogenic stresses at each location.  The need to gain further knowledge about the mangrove flora of the region to help the conservation of mangrove ecosystems is highlighted.


Alongi, D.M. 2020. Mangroves. Pp 393-404, In: Kennish, M.J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Estuaries. Springer. Netherlands.

Anonymous.1987. Mangroves in India-Status Report. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi. 150 pages

Anonymous. 2007. The world’s mangroves 1998–2005. A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153, 77 pages.

Anonymous. 2021. State of Forest Report, Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun, India.

Anupama, C. and Sivadasan, M. 2004. Mangroves of Kerala, India. Rheedea, 14, 9-46.

Barbour, M., Burk, J.H., Pitts, W.D., Gillians, F.S. and Schwartz, M.W. 1999. Terrestrial Ecology. Addson Wesley Longman Inc, Illinois, Chicago. 649 pages.

Basha, C.S. 1991. Distribution of Mangroves in Kerala. Indian Forester, 117, 439-449.

Curtis, J.T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin, An ordination of plant communities. University Wisconsin press, Madison. 640 pages.

Curtis, J.T. and Mclntosh, R.P. 1951. An upland forest continuum in the prairie forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology, 32, 476-496.

Hamilton, S. and Casey, D. 2016. Creation of high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century: a big-data fusion approach. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25, 729-738.

Harishma, K.M., Sandeep, S. and Sreekumar, V.B. 2020. Biomass and carbon stocks in mangrove ecosystems of Kerala, southwest coast of India. Ecological Processes, 9, 31

Hogarth, P.J. 2007. The Biology of Mangroves and Sea grasses. University press Inc, Oxford, New York. 273 pages.

Knight, D.H. 1975. A Phytosociological Analysis of Species-Rich Tropical Forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecological Monographs, 45(3), 259-284.

Kurien, N., Samsuddin, M., Ramachandran, K.K., and Salim. 1994. Resource evaluation using remote sensing for aquaculture site selection. Pp. 23-25. In: Proceedings of 6th Kerala Science Congress, Tiruvananthapuram.

Odum, E.P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science, 164, 262-270. 164.3877.262

Odum, E.P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B. Sanders co, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Oxford, New York. 574 pages.

Pielou, E.C. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 13, 131-144. (66)90013-0

Pillai, N.G. and Harilal, C.C. 2018. Inventory on the diversity and distribution of mangroves from the coastal ecosystems of Kerala State, India. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 9(2), 24002-24007.

Ramachandran, K.K., Balasubramanian, G., Kurien, J. and Thomas, J. 1985.The mangrove ecosystem of Kerala, its mapping inventory and some environmental aspects. Project report (1984–1985). Thiruvananthapuram, State Committee on Science, Technology and Enviornment. 177 pages.

Rao, A.N. 1986. Mangrove ecosystem of Asia and the Pacific. Pp. 322-331, In: Umali, R.M. (Ed.) Mangroves of Asia and specific status and management, Pilot program on mangroves in Asia and Pacific, Technical report of UNDP Research and training. Natural Resources Management Center and National Mangrove Committee, Ministry of Natural Resources, University of California.

Shannon, C.E. 1948. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-656. 1948.tb01338.x

Simpson, E.H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163, 688-688.

Sreeja, P. and Khaleel, K.M. 2010. Status of Mangroves in Thekkumbad, Kannur, Kerala. Journal of Experimental Science, 1(8), 1-2.

Sukumaran, S. and Hari, N. 2018. Diversity analysis and present status of Mangroves from Kerala, West coast of India. International Journal of Advanced and Innovative Research, 7 (6), 1-15.

Vaiga, M. and Joseph, S. 2016. Identification of mangrove and mangrove associates in Kannur district of Kerala including their economic – ecological linkages. International Journal of Botany Studies, 1(5), 22-31.

Vidyasagaran, K. and Madhusoodanan, V.K. 2014. Distribution and plant diversity of mangroves in the west coast of Kerala, India. Journal of Biodiversity and Environment Sciences, 4, 38-45.

Vidyasagaran, K., Ranjan, M.V., Maneeshkumar, M. and Praseeda, T.P. 2011. Phytosociological analysis of mangroves at Kannur District, Kerala. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(7), 671-677.

Vijayan, V., Rahees, N. and Vidyasagaran, K. 2015. Plant diversity and structural dynamics of mangroves in the southwest coast of Kerala, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 13(4), 1055-1067.




How to Cite

Nambiar, K. . . B., & Miranda, J. (2024). Community Structure and Diversity of Mangroves at Kannur District of Kerala, Southwest Coast of India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 50(4), 577–583.